How do you ask for referrals?

I’m still in college but thinking about what comes next. I always hear people saying referrals are one of the best ways to get a job… But how do you ask for one? I’ve seen people “offer” a referral to people they don’t know (like in Facebook groups), so can you just ask a random person from a company you like for a referral? Does it need to be someone who knows you well? Someone you reached out in LinkedIn once?
Any insights would be greatly appreciated!

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